The United striker gave the visitors the lead in the first half and, although Kamil Glik levelled after the break, the result takes Roy Hodgson's side a point clear of Montenegro at the top of World Cup qualifying Group H.
Rooney made it three goals inside a week for his country when converting Steven Gerrard's corner, apparently via his shoulder in a similar fashion to Robin van Persie's recent effort away to Cluj.
Tom Cleverley worked hard in midfield and dragged one shot wide but the hosts began to dominate with Rooney switching to a position wide on the left and needing to do plenty of defensive work. Danny Welbeck was introduced for Jermain Defoe and instantly carried a threat, prising the ball away from Przemyslaw Tyton and teeing up Rooney, who could only fire over the bar.
It proved costly as Poland bagged a deserved equaliser when Glik beat Joe Hart and Joleon Lescott to thump home a header from a corner and cheer the home supporters who had seen the game washed out on Tuesday.
Hodgson decided to withdraw Rooney with 17 minutes remaining in order to play a natural wide man in Arsenal's Alex Oxlade-Chamberlain but there was no further addition to the scoreline with both Michael Carrick and Cleverley playing the full 90 minutes in midfield.